Chapter 9: 3. Reports on various products - Preparation and tasting of water, coffee and infusions. HOTR0209 (2023)

3. Reports of los several products

Among the main tasks of a perfect preparation for tasting water, coffee and infusions, is to make reports on the various products. Without thorough knowledge of a brand and its products, a successful analysis can never be achieved. A tasting, a product presentation or a course will be more enriching if they are surrounded by a report on the brand, the company, the packaging or roasting method and the reputation of the importers. The knowledge of its official classification according to the legislation will make us understand its comparative advantages with other products, as well as fully understand what its production methods are, which justify its added value.

3.1. Brand commercial y company packing machine, maker, toaster o importer

It is necessary to collect all the data to always have them available for consultation and for the rectification or cancellation of the various products; in this case, bottled water, coffee and infusions.

The trademark says a lot about a product. The name used to designate a product will be its trademark, so it is essential that said name be attractive, dynamic, visual, unique and representative of the product. Being knowledgeable about coffee, tea or water production methods is of vital importance for any self-respecting sommelier who seeks to differentiate themselves from the rest, but, without a doubt, knowledge of the diversity of brands in the international field of water, coffee and infusions It is what will allow you to be fully updated with modern sommelier.

Another aspect to take into account, once the trademark is known, is what is behind it, that is, the packaging, processing, roasting or importing company. This section will provide important data on work customs and cultures, respect for the environment and awareness of excellence at work. Many of the brands on the market may belong to the same group and knowing this can help to understand their subsequent sensory analysis and, above all, have communication arguments for giving commented tastings.

Any brand worth going on the market must be duly protected by the means provided by law and be registered in the register expressly authorized for that purpose.

In Spain, there are more than a hundred brands of bottled water and more than a thousand aquifers.

The main locations are in the northern basins of Spain and in mountains and rivers such as the Guadiana, the Guadalquivir, the Júcar and the Ebro.

Chapter 9: 3. Reports on various products - Preparation and tasting of water, coffee and infusions. HOTR0209 (1)


3. Make a list of Spanish coffee brands whose roasting process is carried out in Spain.

Chapter 9: 3. Reports on various products - Preparation and tasting of water, coffee and infusions. HOTR0209 (2)


According to the European Federation of Bottled Waters (EFBW), Spain is the fourth country in the EU in terms of mineral water production, behind Germany, Italy and France, and the third in consumption, after Italy and Germany.

3.2. Classification official y process of elaboration

It is important to officially know the name that the products receive, since a natural mineral water would not be the same as a prepared water, a roasted coffee as a natural coffee, etc.

Understanding its production processes will also allow a much better analysis of the product from its origin.

Aguas packaged

Being a natural product, it could be said that no two waters are the same. Bottled waters differ greatly from public supply waters, so only natural mineral water is used for organoleptic analysis.


In Spain, on the occasion of its entry into the European Union, the legislation was adapted in 1986 and three groups were established:

1.Agua mineral natural:healthy, stable and underground waters. Its quality will depend on the factors influencing quality (type of rock through which it circulates, space traveled, time in the subsoil, temperature and endogenous phenomenology). They are bounded by aquifers.

2.Agua of spring:groundwater governed by public water standards. They emerge from the earth spontaneously or are captured by drilling.

3.Agua ready:treated water for human consumption. They can be underground or surface.

Within these large groups, there are also other types:

1.Con gas:The gas is generated between 3 and 30 km deep, mainly in volcanic areas. There are two kinds:

1.Agua mineral natural carbonic natural:endogenous carbon dioxide, that is, it comes naturally gasified from the spring. They are usually between 3.5 and 7.5 g/l of carbon dioxide.

2.Agua mineral natural con carbonic added:artificially added carbon.

2.According to are mineralization (residue seco):understanding by dry residue the total salts dissolved in the water, expressed in milligrams per liter of water (hereinafter, RS). There are three types:

1.Very weak mineralization < 50 mg/l of RS.

2. Weak mineralization between 51 and 500 mg/l of RS.

3. Strong mineralization > 1500 mg/l of RS.

3.According to are analysis chemical:which provides information on its composition in minerals acquired by the water in its passage through the subsoil. Other factors such as the time in the subsoil, the space traveled, the depth, the speed or the underground temperature will be the influential factors of the mineralization of the water.

The waters usually have two meanings on average; For example, the most common and according to their chemical analysis would be the following:

1. Calcium bicarbonate, more sweet taste.

2.Sodium chloride, more salty taste.

3. Magnesium sulfate, more bitter taste.




> 600 mg/l


> 200 mg/l


> 200 mg/l


> 150 mg/l


> 50 mg/l


> 200 mg/l


> 1 mg/l


> 1 mg/l


As for the process of elaboration of the water, it is one of the products in which the hand of man should intervene the least, with the exception of prepared water, which is chemically treated to make it drinkable.

Chapter 9: 3. Reports on various products - Preparation and tasting of water, coffee and infusions. HOTR0209 (3)


To measure the mineralization and dry residue of the water, it is necessary to evaporate it in a test tube until it completely disappears and, later, heat it to 180º to finish the process by weighing and analyzing the dry part.

The influential factors in terms of its quality and differentiation from the rest in a natural mineral water are the following:

Type of roca by the what circulate:The water becomes drinkable thanks to the fact that the rocks through which it circulates filter impurities, in addition to providing it with mineral salts.

Time in he subsoil:it can be hours or tens of thousands of years. More time underground equals more mineralization.

Space route:more space equals more time underground (depending on speed).

Temperature in depth:the deeper, the higher the temperature and, consequently, the higher the dissolution of minerals.

Phenomenology endogenous:volcanic or seismic regions provide carbonated waters and with more minerals (lithium, fluoride, etc.), calledaguas

Importance y values of the agua mineral natural

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It is the second product in the field of world currencies, only below oil. Coffee underwent a legislative restructuring in the first decade of the 21st century in which the farmer was forced to pay more money, for which there was a price rise and, consequently, production cuts.

At the end of the first decade of this century, 140 million 60 kg bags were reached. At present, consumption has dropped slightly, but remains stable.

The coffee bean is the livelihood of more than 70% of small families with less than 10 ha of cultivation, which is why it is the rural engine of the economy in producing countries. For all this and much more, coffee is more than worth studying and an important part of the sommelier. The culture that surrounds it, its service ceremony and its fun and varied tasting technique make this product something unique and worth admiring.

Chapter 9: 3. Reports on various products - Preparation and tasting of water, coffee and infusions. HOTR0209 (5)


One gram of caffeine is equivalent to ten cups of espresso coffee. If they were consumed daily for a week, withdrawal symptoms could appear.

There are several ways tosort outthe coffee. In international trade, they can be included by their valuation, mix and origin:

soft Colombians:mix of Colombia and some Kenya and Tanzania. Along with the mild Jamaicans, they are the most sought after.

Others soft:twenty-three African and South American countries. The most prized come from Jamaica, India, Ecuador, Guatemala and the Dominican Republic.

Natural of Brazil:produced by blends from Brazil and Ethiopia or Indonesia and the Philippines.

Robust:from nineteen countries, ideal for mixes and solubles. Ecuador, Brazil, India, the Philippines and Ethiopia stand out

Another much more common way to find them is by the family of thecoffee:

Arabica:covers 75% of world coffee production, cool climate, fine and aromatic coffee. It has a high mountain climate, between 900 and 2000 meters above sea level (masl). Originally from Ethiopia.

Robusta:coffee with more caffeine and high acidity and bitterness. It is used for soluble coffees and blends. It adapts better to flat terrain and gives more production. Originally from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Liberia:its cultivation is practically symbolic. Originally from Liberia. It is widely consumed in Scandinavian countries.

Chapter 9: 3. Reports on various products - Preparation and tasting of water, coffee and infusions. HOTR0209 (6)

differences in between arabica y robusta Photograph 1: H. Zell; Photograph 2: FC Rebelo H. Zell Via Web - CC WOULD 3.0)

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Once the style of coffee to be made or itsblends(mixtures), can be divided into four groups:

roast natural:only collection, roasting, mixing and packaging processes.

roast roasted:the same as the previous one, but adding sugar at the end of the roasting (no more than 15% of sugar by the total weight of the coffee). This process makes it more colored and bitter.

Decaffeinated natural:less than 0.1% caffeine in roasted coffee beans and less than 0.3% caffeine in soluble coffees.

Soluble:lower quality than freshly ground coffee. It is produced by dehydration or freeze-drying of already infused coffees.

Chapter 9: 3. Reports on various products - Preparation and tasting of water, coffee and infusions. HOTR0209 (8)



Process that consists of removing the caffeine part, altering the organoleptic qualities as little as possible.

As for hisprocess ofIt must be taken into account that there are also microclimates, terroirs, eccentricities, tall coffees, tasting notes, etc.

Chapter 9: 3. Reports on various products - Preparation and tasting of water, coffee and infusions. HOTR0209 (9)

Many different degrees of toasted of and café, of smaller a mayor intensity Photography: And Bollinger Via Web - CC WOULD 3.0)

The coffees are collected as seeds that must be extracted from the callcherry of thename that comes from its shape and appearance similar to a cherry. Two seeds are removed from each cherry, which, once cleaned, are dried and toasted. It is at this moment that each master roaster contributes his know-how and, consequently, the most personal and unmistakable note of each brand. The roasting of the coffee is what will give an aroma, a fragrance, an appearance and a characteristic taste to the coffee, so its roasting is the most influential factor in its future quality.

test y others infusions

In the first instance, the difference between tea, herbal tea, rooibos and other infusions must be perfectly known:

Tea:is the infusion of a plant (leaves and buds) native to China calledCamelliaThree autochthonous subspecies from different regions are known:Camellia sinensis sinensis(China),Camellia sinensis assamica(India) andCamellia sinensis Lazio calyx(Cambodia).

Chapter 9: 3. Reports on various products - Preparation and tasting of water, coffee and infusions. HOTR0209 (10)

Camellia sinensis

Herbal tea:drink that is obtained by boiling certain combinations of herbs or spices, dried or dehydrated fruits and rinds in water. It usually has a medicinal connotation.

Chapter 9: 3. Reports on various products - Preparation and tasting of water, coffee and infusions. HOTR0209 (11)

Herbal tea of fruits dehydrated Photography: A Girl With Tea Via Web - CC BY 2.0)

Rooibos:plant of South African origin of the leguminous family, of which the oxidized or not leaves are used. Well known for its antioxidant properties.

Chapter 9: 3. Reports on various products - Preparation and tasting of water, coffee and infusions. HOTR0209 (12)

Rooibos Photography: / André Helbig Via Web - CC WOULD 3.0)

There are other very common infusions, known for their medicinal, diuretic, antioxidant or exciting properties, such as: mate, chamomile, pennyroyal, lime blossom, green anise, ginger, lemon balm, rosemary, valerian, ginseng, aloe vera, etc.

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Just as coffee has caffeine, tea contains theine, equally stimulating, but with different effects on the body, since caffeine alters, while theine keeps you alert and allows you to concentrate.

Chapter 9: 3. Reports on various products - Preparation and tasting of water, coffee and infusions. HOTR0209 (14)


4. Make a list of at least ten herbal teas that are famous for their curative, preventive or antioxidant medicinal properties.

Of all of them, tea is the protagonist due to production, history, consumption, variety, millennial tradition, etc.

The geography of tea is 84% ​​concentrated in seven countries: China, Kenya, Sri Lanka, India, Turkey, Japan and Indonesia (intertropical Asian countries).

The types of tea according to their production method are the following:

Tea blanco:the purest and least brewed of all teas. The youngest shoots and leaves of the plant that are not yet open (silver needles) wither, dry out and very slight natural oxidation occurs. The name is due to the fact that the plant, at the time of collection, acquires a whitish appearance.

Its processes are: harvesting, withering, drying and classification.

Tea verde:It is made from leaves and shoots. In general, it is much smoother and lighter than black tea, but more intense and full-bodied than white tea. It is fixed (process by which the enzyme that would intervene in the oxidation is deactivated through heat).

Its processes are: harvest; sometimes very short wilted; fixation; curled; drying, and classification.

Tea yellow o dorado:Its process begins like that of green tea, but an extra stage is added in which the tea is wrapped and piled in deep layers while it is still warm and moist. This causes the callfermentation noduring which the heat and moisture within the packet or stack of tea softens its flavor. It is produced in very small quantities in China.

Its processes are: harvesting, fixing, wrapping, partial drying, wrapping, drying and classification.

Tea oolong o tea azul:it is partially rusted. In oxidation level, it is between zero oxidation in green tea and complete oxidation in black tea. They wither very slowly and their oxidation process is slow and subtle. After quartering, the tea develops many floral and fruity aromatic compounds that will be reflected in the cup. Its processes are: harvesting, withering outdoors (in the open air), withering indoors, cracking, partial oxidation, fixing, curling, drying and classification.

Tea negro:the fixation process is skipped and the cells of the leaves are broken to give rise to oxidation. These react with oxygen in the air and give brown compounds.

Its processes are: harvesting, withering, curling or cutting, oxidation, drying and classification.

Tea pu-erh:it is the only one that goes through a post-production fermentation process, a fact that improves the character of the tea over time. After drying, it is steamed again (slightly shriveled) and left in loose strands or compressed into bricks. Subsequently, it is stored in controlled conditions of humidity and temperature for a minimum of five years and, sometimes, up to sixty or seventy years. The fermentation that takes place in the elaboration of a pu-erh tea is a process in which bacteria act as yeasts in the wine and convert sugars into other compounds, which is why it is known for its earthy and malty aroma.

Its processes are: harvesting, withering, fixing, curling, drying, wetting, compression, aging and post-production fermentation.

Chapter 9: 3. Reports on various products - Preparation and tasting of water, coffee and infusions. HOTR0209 (15)
Chapter 9: 3. Reports on various products - Preparation and tasting of water, coffee and infusions. HOTR0209 (16)


There is only one fermented tea, pu-erh, the rest of the teas can be oxidized or not, but they are never fermented.


They are mixtures of different types of tea, or mixtures of tea with fruits, spices and flowers, carefully selected and combined to give a drink with a special aroma, flavor and body for each person and for each moment, with a particular charm.

They are made by blending teas of different origins to create a particular flavor and aroma and to ensure a uniform quality and character in the products over time. The blend of teas may vary each time a tea is brewed as some teas are not available all year.

The main examples are:

Earl Grey:black tea with bergamot extract.

English Breakfast:It is generally a blend of black teas from Assam, Ceylon, and Kenya.

Russian Caravan:a mix of keemun and lapsang souchong.

Queen Victoria:black tea, natural verbena extract and rose petals.

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© Photography 1: Marie-Lan Nguyen; Photography 2: WJ Houtman; Photography 3: / André Helbig; Photography 4: 0121stephen; Photography 5: Bear Fritsche; Photography 6: Editor at Large; Photography 7: WJ Houtman; Photography 8: DianesDigitals; Via Web - CC WOULD 3.0

3.3. Dealers y precio

The alliance between distributor and company is a vital aspect for the life and success of a company. This relationship must be close and clear and always taking into account the communication channel (email, messaging, telephone or face to face).

The correct functioning of the orders to the supplier can be established as follows:

• By buyer's form.

•With an order proposal (printed from the seller).

•By means of business letter.

•Through the phone, fax, email, instant messaging, and so on.

An order to a supplier solves a problem of shortages to customers. It is so wrong a restaurant withstockminimum than another with more stock than it can sell in a period of visits from a supplier. Big promotions in terms of the number of boxes are a double-edged sword, since they may seem very attractive in terms of the savings they entail in price, but they can cause subsequent losses due to product expiration and oxidation. It is best to sign commercial agreements for full years, thanks to which very competitive prices are achieved without the need to carry orders higher than usual consumption.

The correct operation of buying a product would be the following:

•Collect information about the product.

•Ask the supplier for data on prices, conditions, possibility of sampling, and so on.

•Evaluate the product, never buy something without trying it first.

•Choose and put in the gastronomic offer of drinks.

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New technologies allow you to place orders with suppliers from your mobile phone, tablet or computer.

To find suitable suppliers according to the product, it is good to know the entire portfolio of the company. A company that offers coffees and also sells sausages, for example, cannot give guarantees of good practices and care of the coffee. It is always better to look for specialized suppliers in a specific sector and product and always value at least two suppliers per product.

There will be products for which there is no direct supplier, who does pre-sale or auto-sale in the establishment, so new technologies must be used to be able to supply the desired brands, such as, for example, through:


•Press or specialized magazines.

•Sector fairs and congresses.

•Written company guides.

• Television or radio.

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It is important, at the final hour, not to select providers solely for price, but also for quality, the service provided, ease of payment, etc.

3.4. Attributes organoleptic of las aguas packaged, cafés, test y others infusions

First of all, it would be necessary to understand which and how many of the organoleptic senses a product is going to be subjected to.

Five can be listed:

Vista:determines the nuances (colors), the appearance (shine, cleanliness, etc.) and the intensity.

Smell:establishes aromatic sequences and intensity.

Gusto:the five basic tastes are perceived on the tongue: sweet, salty, sour, bitter and umami (fifth recognized taste, which is located in the center of the tongue, comes from Japanese culture and cuisine and is a taste reminiscent of the meat soup).

Ear:the sound of carbonic bubbles is found, if any.

Touch:bring the callssensations trigeminaland that occur in the taste phase as it passes through the middle of the mouth. They are dryness, roughness, astringency, density, oiliness, graininess, velvety, and pungency. Thermal sensations can also be found, which occur in the same way in the taste phase. They are freshness and warmth.

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sensations trigeminal

In the mouth, in addition to flavors and tactile sensations, there are also other sensations that are captured by the trigeminal nerve, which is located in the oral cavity. They are usually irritating and aggressive sensations, such as spiciness, dryness, roughness, astringency, etc.

Once these phases of the tasting and their descriptors have been controlled, an assessment of the product can be made and classified under one or more organoleptic attributes, which, on many occasions, tend to coincide with the final conclusions of a tasting.

It is very interesting not to confuse flavor with aroma or appearance with color; For example, strawberry has a characteristic strawberry aroma, but its taste is sour. Peppermint has a characteristic minty aroma, but its flavor is vegetal and astringent. The tea may be yellow-orange in color, but it may appear clean, shiny, or crystal clear.

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Attribute organoleptic

Set of sensory analysis (sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch) that can be both positive and negative.

Someattributes organoleptic genericThey may be:










In theaguasThe most used organoleptic attributes are:

Fresh:absence of bad odors.

Acidula:characteristic notes of carbonic.

Pleasant:produces pleasure and flawless flavors.

Effervescent:gives off dissolved gas in water.

In the most used organoleptic attributes are:

Light:shiny look.

Off:look mate

fruity:fruit aroma.

Chocolate milk:aromatic cocoa.

caramel:scented caramel

Thick:Lots of body and structure.

Buttery:greasy texture in the mouth.

Seed:flat texture in the mouth.

Delgado:Little body and structure.

Aqueous:little density and unctuousness.

In the most used organoleptic attributes are:

An argument whole o so much in move seca as in move moisturized:Whole leaf, or mixture of whole leaves, large parts of broken leaves or shoots.

An argument rota o broken:both in dry leaf and in moistened leaf (split leaf).

Crunchy:auditory analysis of the leaves when they are pressed in the dry state and creak.

No crunchy:auditory analysis of the leaves when they are pressed in the dry state and do not creak.

Presence of off notes:presence of foul odors.

Absence of off notes:Absence of foul odors.

Texture gross:with body and structure.

Texture slim:with little body and structure.

In other infusions, the organoleptic attributes are usually similar to their tasting notes, that is, the aromatic descriptors themselves could perfectly well be organoleptic attributes.

3.5. Advantages comparative

This moment of the tasting is ideal to compare two similar products, that is to say, that you have the same information about both. Aadvantage comparativeIt is one that makes you reflect on the pros and cons of acquiring a product from which there are several suppliers. As seen in previous sections, the price is not the only factor that should influence the final purchase decision, but rather the following points:

• Value for money.

•Frequency with which the supplier visits.

•Existence of supplier or not.

• Channel through which the product is obtained.

•Additional delivery costs.

•Payment deadline.

•Promotions and samples.

•Collaboration in events.

•Regular customers of the establishment.

A priori, a comparative advantage can bring unpleasant surprises to the naked eye, but beneficial ones, in the short and medium term, since a product can be very good in terms of its quality, but very cumbersome in terms of how to achieve it, therefore that can lead to buying expensive and losing competitiveness. Sometimes being practical is the best decision after a carefully done comparative advantage.

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Application practice

As sumiller of and restaurant of gama media, after of attend a and congress of cafés, where you ha tried a brand of café, Jamaica Blue Mountain, y and café of Guatemala, Volcano of Oro. They are boss the asks what the god and report con las advantages comparative in between is of the brands. comment that report the would give y con that brand with


The Jamaican Blue Mountain is considered the most expensive coffee in the world within large production coffees and has good acidity and a low caffeine index. However, Guatemala's Volcán de Oro also has very fresh acidity and is considered one of the most aromatic in the world, plus it costs five times less.

Due to the potential customers are of medium purchasing power, it is necessary not to increase the costs of a lunch or dinner too much and, by giving a Gold Volcano, it would be enough to perpetuate the image of the place.

Therefore, the chosen brand is the Volcán de Oro from Guatemala.

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